DEMING AND JURAN: THE PROFITS FROM AMERICA
The foundations for Total Quality Management have their roots in two Americans who went to Japan after World War II. Dr. W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran are both responsible for Japan’s recovery after the devastation of World War II.
To understand Deming, it is important to know that he received his Ph.D in physics from Yale University in 1928. In the business world, however, he distinguished himself as a statistician and worked for Western Electric and later for the U.S Government until after World War II during World II, both deeming and Juran had a significant effect upon American manufacturing. Knowing that quality product were necessary to win the war, statistics became a vital subject since were used to find the acceptable quality levels (AQL).
The AQL tables prescribed minimum quality levels that were acceptable. Proponent of statistics realized the importance of statistical methodology to obtain quality. In fact, as an outgrowth of World War II, the American Society for Quality Control started in 1945.
Joseph Juran studied electrical engineering and law before he went to work at Western enteric as chief of the inspector control division. In 1954 Juran also went to Japan to lecture on quality management and was the first to deal with the went board aspects of quality management (organization communication, coordination of functions, etc.).
After the war, however, leading management scholars as Peter Drucker and the infamous Genaral Motors star Alford Sloan influenced major organization to adopt another approach to management that was widely accepted, management by objectives. Although MBO become the leading management theory in the 1960s and 1970s, the root of MOB can be traced back to Drucker in hit writing in the latter part of the 1940s and the 1950s
Advocates of quality control such as W.Shewhart, Joseph Juran, W Edwards Deming, and Armond Ferigen baum were not reacted. However , nor was Total Quality Management embraced by top management. The management –by-objectives approach became far more dominants and accepted by manufacturing leaders .Quality control became more a matter of inspection and detection and not the primary focus of top management.
What is interesting is that all four of the advocates for quality control, Shewhart, Juran Deming, and Feigenbaum, worked at one time for Western Electics. All four have written extensively on quality control: in 1963 Shewhart worte Economic Control of Quality manufactured products; Feigenbaum wrote Total Quality Control in 1961. Perhaps Juran’s quality control hand book published in 1951 was the mosey significant publication and is still recognized as one of the most significant books ever written on the subject.
Of the four authors, Deming and Juran became the most famous, since both of them spent considerable in Japan assisting Japanese manufactures in building high quality product. Understanding all four of the wirers on quality control requires an understanding of what Deming referred to as “profound Knowledge.”Profound Knowledge emerges from understanding variation and, more specifically, process variance Sine variance is change, the aforementioned authors believed that to understand a process the variation points within each process needed to be identified to archive quality. As statisticians, they were able to chart the amount of variance in an entire process. When variance wears normal, it was thought of as the process being in control. However, when variance was not within the limits of the process, then process was thought to be of control.
The quality control advocates suggested that the soured of variations within the process should be investigated when the process was out of control. Statistical data should be used when designing, manufacturing and inspecting quality. American business leaders understood the importance and inspecting quality. American business leaders understood the importance of quality control. However, they only accepted quality control as a step in the process, not one to be applied to the total process
Consequently, American manufacturers focuses on making quality control a specific department within the process. Hence, quality control became a function was applied to the produce after it was built, not during the designing and building process. In most American factories the job of the quality control engineers became an inspection and detection function at the end of the line.
They would use statistics to try to weed out bad products from the good ones. Sine American manufacturer dominated the world in product; it was okay for consumers to take their chances in buying American products. American manufactures realized that they had a built-in market for practically anything they built, and the quality of their product was not vitally important to making profits. Practically all product designed, built, and inspected had consumers waiting impatiently for them. Even when products varied significantly in quality, it was okay. In fact, many industries emerged in America just to repair poorly designed and built products.
Even thought American business leaders understood the significance of the total quality control advocates, they refused to let their notions dominate their management approach. Therefore, Deming and Juran went to Japan after World War II to assist Japanese manufacturers in building quality products. Profound
Knowledge. Controlling variation form design stage to the delivery stage became the dominant management theme in Japan.
It wasn’t until the latter part 1970s and the early of the 1980s that American manufactures began to realize that they were losing market share and that the management approach they were using may not be in their best interest. In 1980, a television shoe entailed “If Japan Can, Why Can’t We” was aired on a major broadcasting company. This TV program alerted many business leaders and it caught the attention of the American people. Many business leaders went to Japan to begin studying how they could improve their management methods.
Many Americans had already discovered that built by our international competitors were better for their pocketbooks than what they could buy in America. The United States was literally forced to rethink how it would manufacture products that would compete with our international competition. Because Deming and Juran had such an impact upon Japanese business leaders, total quality control became the basis of a new management system called Total Quality Management.
To make total quality control work in Japan,Deming and Juran became far more than statisticians and engineers. They used the assumptions that emerged from their study of variance to develop a complete management approach to organizations. Statistical analysis and the study of variance was the foundation of their management approach. However, they became expert in quality leadership quality teams, the use of technology, the use of data, organizational structure performance measurement; etc While American management scholars were writing about management about management methods to improve productivity, Deming and Juran were focusing management methods to improve quality. We believe that the management methods advocated Deming and Juran Should be applied in government In 1992, the Department of Labor and Employment Security in the State Florida allowed us the opportunity to test the Deming and Juran method. Their ideas became our foundation for developing a management system for government organizations.
We also were influenced by the work of Phil Crosby, anther of Quality is Free. Crosby argued that the most effective method of management is to prevent defects. His Slogan was “Zero defects.”Crosby also developed a complete management approach
In the following pages we will identify the key element in the management approaches outlined by Deming. Juran, and Crosby. We will use all three approaches in developing what we believe are cornerstones – the beliefs and principles- of Total Quality Management.
Deming listed fourteen point that he has used with companies in Japan and in America to help them become competitive and successful. When he first started working with the Japanese, he had fewer points –perhaps ten-but as a result of this continued dedication and experience rescuing companies, the list has grown. Although these points were intended for private industry and not for services in government, many apply equally well to government, There fourteen points are presented in a book commended by Dr. Deming, written and explained by Mary Walton in the Deming Management Method as followers:
1. Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service Dr. Deming suggests a radical new definition of a company’s role. Rather than making money, it is to stay in business and provide jobs through innovation, research, constant improvement
2. Adopt the new philosophy. Americans are too tolerant of poor workmanship and sullen service. We need a new religion in which mistakes and negativism
3. Cease dependence on mass inspection American firms typically inspect a product as it come off the line or at major stages. Defective products are either throw out or reworked; both are unnecessarily expensive. In effect, a company comes not from inspection but from improvement of the process. With instructions, works can be enlisted in the improvement.
4. End the practice of awarding business on basis of price tag alone Purchasing department customarily operate on order to seek the lowest priced vendor. Frequently, this leads to supplies of low quality, Instend; they should seek the best quality and work to achieve it with single supplier for any one item in a long- term relationship.
5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service Improvement is not a one-time effort. Management is obligated to continually look for ways to reduce waste and improve quality.
6. Institute training. Too often, workers have learned job from another worker who was never trained properly, they are forced to follow unintelligible instructions, and they can’t do their jobs because no one tells them how.
7. Institute leadership. The job of a supervisor is not to tell people what to do or to punish them, but to lead. Leading consists of helping people do a better job and learning, by objective methods, who is in need individual help.
8. Drive out fear. Many employees are afraid to ask questions or to take a position even when they do not understand what the job is or what I right or wrong, People will continue to do things the wrong way, or to not do them at all. The economic loss from is appalling. It is necessary for better quality and productivity that people feel secure.
9. Break down barriers between staff areas. Often staff areas departments, units are competing with each other or have goals that conflict.
10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for workforces. There never helped anybody do a good job Let people put up their own slogans.
11. Eliminate numerical quotas. Quotas take account only of numbers, not quality or methods, they are usually of inefficiency and high cost. A person, to hold job, meets a quota at any cost, without regard to damage to the company.
12. Remove barriers program of workmanship. People are eager to do a good job and distressed when they can’t Too often, misguided supervisors, faulty equipment, and defective materials stand in the way. There barriers must be removed.
13 Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining. Both management and the workforce will have to be educated in the new method, including teamwork and statistical techniques.
14. Take action accomplish this transformation. It will take a special top management team with a plan of action to carry out the quality mission. Workers can’t do it on their own, nor can managers. A critical mass of people in the company must understand the Fourteen Points.
Jerry W. Koehler and Joseph M. Pankowaki (1996) Quality Government Designing,Developing,and,Implementing TQM. FL :Published By St. Lucie Press
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